Particulate Matter (Total 93536 Papers Found)

BACKGROUND Current air quality standards for particulate matter (PM) use the PM mass concentration [PM with aerodynamic diameters ≤ 10 μm (PM(10)) or ≤ 2.5 μm (PM(2.5))] as a metric. It has been suggested that particles from combustion sources are more relevant to human health than are particles from other sources, but the impact of policies directed at reducing PM from combustion processes is usually relatively small when effects are estimated for a reduction in the total mass concentrati ...
The stratified water column of the Black Sea produces a vertical succession of redox zones, stimulating microbial activity at the interfaces. Our study of intact polar membrane lipids (IPLs) in suspended particulate matter and sediments highlights their potential as biomarkers for assessing the taxonomic composition of live microbial biomass. Intact polar membrane lipids in oxic waters above the chemocline represent contributions of bacterial and eukaryotic photosynthetic algae, while anoxygenic ...
We studied acute responses of rat lungs to inhalation of urban particulate matter and ozone. Exposure to particles (40 mg/m3 for 4 hours; mass median aerodynamic diameter, 4 to 5 microm; Ottawa urban dust, EHC-93), followed by 20 hours in clean air, did not result in acute lung injury. Nevertheless, inhalation of particles resulted in decreased production of nitric oxide (nitrite) and elevated secretion of macrophage inflammatory protein-2 from lung lavage cells. Inhalation of ozone (0.8 parts p ...
In the Weddell Sea, primary production varies seasonally as a result of the solar cycle and the large-scale oscillation of the ice edge across much of its area. The annual ice transgression is the largest of any region on Earth1 and has a profound influence on the production and transportation of particulate matter. In order to clarify the flux, origin and mode of vertical transport of oceanic particles in the pelagic Weddell Sea, we deployed a multi-year sediment trap. The annual particle flux ...
Chronic exposure to particulate matter air pollution is known to cause inflammation leading to respiratory- and cardiovascular-related sickness and death. Mexico City Metropolitan Area children exhibit an early brain imbalance in genes involved in oxidative stress, inflammation, and innate and adaptive immune responses. Early dysregulated neuroinflammation, brain microvascular damage, production of potent vasoconstrictors, and perturbations in the integrity of the neurovascular unit likely contr ...
The chemical composition of airborne particulate matter (PM) was studied at a coastal region near De Haan, Belgium, during a winter-spring and a summer campaign in 2006. The major ionic components of size-segregated PM, i.e. NH(4)(+), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), Cl(-), NO(3)(-), and SO(4)(2-), and related gaseous pollutants (SO(2), NO(2), NH(3), HNO(2), and HNO(3)) were monitored on a daily basis. Air mass backward-trajectories aided in evaluating the origin of the diurnal pollution load. This ...
More than 3 million people died prematurely in 2010 due to ambient exposure to fine particulate matter (PM2.5), according to estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Although air pollution measurements taken from ground-level monitors can help inform such estimates, a paucity of monitoring stations outside of North America and Western Europe make it difficult to compare levels and trends in PM2.5 and their health effects around the world. Fortunately, satellite data provide a way of fi ...
We describe breakthrough results obtained in a feasibility study of a fundamentally new architecture for air-cooled heat exchangers. In conventional “fan-plus-finned-heat-sink” air-cooled heat exchangers, the primary physical limitation to performance (i.e. achieving low thermal resistance) is the boundary layer of motionless air that adheres to and envelops all surfaces of the heat exchanger. Within this boundary layer region of “dead air”, diffusive transport is the dominant mechanism ...
Particulate matter (PM) modulates the expression of autophagy; however, the role of selective autophagy by PM remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the underlying mechanisms in protein oxidation and degradation caused by PM. Human epithelial A549 cells were exposed to diesel exhaust particles (DEPs), urban dust (UD), and carbon black (CB; control particles). Cell survival and proliferation were significantly reduced by DEPs and UD in A549 cells. First, benzo(a)pyrene diol ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of "Gene expression profiling of human bronchial epithelial cells exposed to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) from biomass combustion." by Désirée Popadić et al. ...
Concentrations and distribution of octylphenol (OP), nonylphenol (NP), and bisphenol A (BPA) in surface water and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the north Tai Lake basin, China were studied. Aqueous and particulate (dry weight) concentrations for OP, NP, and BPA varied from 10.5-1,175 ng/L to <1.52-5,365 ng/g, respectively. The spatial distribution of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in dissolved and particulate phases showed that the amount of EDCs in water that were adsorbed t ...
Intertidal sediments of Tagus estuary regularly experiences complex redistribution due to tidal forcing, which affects the cycling of mercury (Hg) between sediments and the water column. This study quantifies total mercury (Hg) and methylmercury (MMHg) concentrations and fluxes in a flooded mudflat as well as the effects on water-level fluctuations on the air-surface exchange of mercury. A fast increase in dissolved Hg and MMHg concentrations was observed in overlying water in the first 10min of ...
The project SAMPLE evaluated methods for measuring particle properties in the exhaust of aircraft engines with respect to the development of standardized operation procedures for particulate matter measurement in aviation industry. Filter-based off-line mass methods included gravimetry and chemical analysis of carbonaceous species by combustion methods. Online mass methods were based on light absorption measurement or used size distribution measurements obtained from an electrical mobility analy ...
BACKGROUND Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) plays a crucial role in the defense of the airways against inhaled substances and is affected by various factors. The effect of particulate matter on NMC in women using biomass fuel has not been well studied. AIM This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the NMC time in biomass fuel users and compare it with that of clean fuel users. MATERIALS AND METHODS NMC time and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were determined in women of age rangin ...
Although several studies have been carried out on Short Rotation Coppice (SRC) plantations and on their environmental performances, there is a lack of information about the environmental impact of the harvesting operations. In this study, using LCA approach, the environmental performance of two different harvesting solutions for Short Rotation Coppice plantations was evaluated. In more details, for 2-years cutting time poplar plantations, harvesting with a self-propelled forager equipped with a ...
Environmental pollutants seem to be responsible for dramatical increase of allergic disorders that have been observed lately. The best documented environmental factors facilitating allergy development are: ozone, diesel-exhaust particulate matter and tobacco smoke. Formaldehyde and SO2 seem to be also very important but still are not sufficiently documented. Mechanisms involved in allergy promotion include: better penetration of allergens across respiratory mucosa or direct modulation of immunol ...
This paper describes the effect of wildfire particulate matter on air quality over a large part of Europe in 2003. It uses MODIS daily smoke emission inventory and a simple parameterization of injection altitude to prescribe the wildfire emissions in a mesoscale chemistry transport model. The authors conclude that the wildfire resulted in a significant enhancement of PM10 ground concentrations over a large part of Europe, exerted a strong radiative forcing and had a substantial effect of photoly ...
BACKGROUND Chronic alcohol consumption causes persistent oxidative stress in the lung, leading to impaired alveolar macrophage (AM) function and impaired immune responses. AMs play a critical role in protecting the lung from particulate matter (PM) inhalation by removing particulates from the airway and secreting factors which mediate airway repair. We hypothesized AM dysfunction caused by chronic alcohol consumption increases the severity of injury caused by PM inhalation. METHODS Age- and se ...
The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) estimates that half a million health-care workers are exposed to laser surgical smoke each year. The purpose of this study was to establish a methodology to (1) estimate emission rates of laser-generated air contaminants (LGACs) using an emission chamber, and to (2) perform a screening study to differentiate the effects of three laser operational parameters. An emission chamber was designed, fabricated, and assessed for performance to ...
It is clear that particulate air pollution poses a serious risk to human health; however, the underlying mechanisms are not completely understood. We investigated pulmonary transcriptional responses in mice following in-situ exposure to ambient air in a heavily industrialized urban environment. Mature C57BL/CBA male mice were caged in sheds near two working steel mills and a major highway in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada in the spring/summer of 2004. Control mice were housed in the same environment, ...
African dust storm events (ADE) travel across the Atlantic Ocean (ADEAO) and reach the Puerto Rican coast (ADEPRC), potentially impacting air quality and human health. To what extent seasonal variations in atmospheric particulate matter (PM) size fractions, composition and sources trigger respiratory-adverse effects to Puerto Ricans is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the pro-inflammatory and cytotoxic effects of PM samples harvested during ADEAO (PM10), ADEPRC (PM2.5 and PM1 ...
Epidemiological studies have suggested that combustion-derived smoke, such as that produced during incense burning, is a deleterious air pollutant. It is capable of initiating oxidative stress and mutation; however, the related apoptotic processes remain unclear. In order to elucidate the biological mechanisms of reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced respiratory toxicology, alveolar epithelial A549 cells were exposed to incense particulate matter (PM), with and without antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cys ...
Sixteen-month time-series measurements of water velocity and light scattering were coupled with hydrographic and suspended particulate matter sections to determine the flux and the variability in flux of suspended particulate matter through the Vema Channel. The northward flux of SPM through the Vema Channel ranged from 3 to 10.5 × 104 g s 1 with a mean of 6.5 × 104 g s 1. The largest fluxes were measured in the deepest and eastern portions of the channel with maximum fluxes of suspended parti ...
Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and c ...
Beef cattle in the United States are routinely administered ractopamine, a β-adrenergic receptor agonist, to enhance growth. The present study is the first to quantify ractopamine in feedyard-emitted particulate matter and playa wetlands near feedyards. Ractopamine was present in 92% of particulate matter samples, 16% of playa sediment samples, and 3% of playa water samples, at maximum concentrations of 4.7 μg/g, 5.2 ng/g (dry wt), and 271 ng/L, respectively. These data suggest that aeri ...
This study was aimed at evaluating the in vitro effects of particulate matter (ranging from 2.5-10 m in an aerodynamic diameter, PM10) from an urban area on the motility of human spermatozoa. Samples of swim up selected human spermatozoa from three healthy men with normal semen parameters, according to WHO guidelines, were incubated for 4 hours with 10, 50 and 75 μg/ml of PM10. Kinetic parameters were evaluated with Computer-Assisted Sperm Analysis (CASA) and the presence of apoptosis and necro ...
Heart rate variability (HRV) is concerned with analysis of the variations in the intervals between heartbeats, known as RR intervals. Commonly used HRV indices may be insensitive in detecting some dynamic changes related to complex autocorrelation functions of the RR intervals. For example, indices SD1 and SD2 of the Poincaré plot can be expressed by the variance and first auto-covariance of the signal. The acceleration change index is related to the autocorrelation functions of the series only ...
BACKGROUND The burning of moxa floss in moxibustion releases moxa smoke containing a substantial amount of particulate matter (PM10) into the environment, which has generated safety concerns about its potential health impact. DESIGN Plasmid scission assay was performed using PM10 collected from moxibustion clinics. METHODS PM10 was collected in winter 2012 by burning three types of moxa floss samples in moxibustion simulation clinics, and the resulting PM10 mass concentration was calculated. ...
The purposes of this study are to develop a healthy commute map indicating cleanest route in Taipei metropolitan area for any given journey and to evaluate the pollutant doses exposed in different commuting modes. In Taiwan, there are more than 13.6 million motorcycles and 7.7 million vehicles among the 23 million people. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants can thus cause adverse health effects. Moreover, increasing the level of physical activity during commuting and longer distances will ...
Emission factors (EFs) for hazardous polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), carbonyls, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as well as other species such as PM2.5, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC), and tracer compounds (e.g., levoglucosan (LG) and other sugars) were investigated for sugarcane pre-harvest burning in Florida. A combustion chamber was used to simulate field burning conditions for determining EFs of both dry leaf and whole stalk biomass burning. Samples were collected f ...
Avian influenza virus-infected poultry can release a large amount of virus-contaminated droppings that serve as sources of infection for susceptible birds. Much research so far has focused on virus spread within flocks. However, as fecal material or manure is a major constituent of airborne poultry dust, virus-contaminated particulate matter from infected flocks may be dispersed into the environment. We collected samples of suspended particulate matter, or the inhalable dust fraction, inside, up ...
Adverse health effects are associated with exposure to atmospheric particulate matter (PM), which carry various chemical constituents and induce both exogenous and endogenous oxidative stress. This study investigated the spatial and seasonal variability of PM-induced ROS at four sites with different characteristics in Hong Kong. Cytotoxicity, exogenous and endogenous ROS was determined on a dose and time dependent analysis. Large spatial variation of ROS was observed with fine PM at urban site s ...
Dissolved methane and high resolution bathymetry surveys were conducted over the Rock Garden region of Ritchie Ridge, along the Hikurangi margin, eastern New Zealand. Multibeam bathymetry reveals two prominent, northeast trending ridges, parallel to subduction along the margin, that are steep sided and extensively slumped. Elevated concentrations of methane (up to 10 nM, 10× background) within the water column are associated with a slump structure at the southern end of Eastern Rock Garden. The ...
Both long- and short-term (1-2 hours) exposure to particulate matter (PM) are associated with morbidity and mortality caused by cardiovascular diseases. One of the underlying mechanisms may be due to changes to blood coagulability upon exposure to PM. We investigated this possibility by measuring differences in blood clots formed in the presence of particulate matter in vitro. Total (T)PM increased the permeation of clots in a dose-dependant manner. Filtered (F)PM (17 microg/ml) also produced a ...
Pollen from Japanese cedar (sugi) and cypress (hinoki) trees is responsible for the growing prevalence of allergic rhinitis, especially pollinosis in Japan. Previous studies have suggested that air pollutants enhance the allergic response to pollen in susceptible individuals. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to examine the potential modifying effects of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the association between pollen concentration and daily consultations for poll ...
Estimating the burden of mortality associated with particulates requires knowledge of exposure-response associations. However, the evidence on exposure-response associations is limited in many cities, especially in developing countries. In this study, we predicted associations of particulates smaller than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) with mortality in 73 Chinese cities. The meta-regression model was used to test and quantify which city-specific characteristics contributed significantly ...
Studies conducted over the past decades have provided substantial evidence that both the long- and the short-term exposures to ozone and particulate matter are responsible for mortality and cardiopulmonary morbidity. This paper examines the relationship between exposure to ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) and public health and provides the quantification of the burden of disease from PM10 and O3-related mortality an ...
To evaluate the relative importance of various measures of particulate and gaseous air pollution as predictors of daily mortality in Inchon, South Korea, the association between total daily mortality and air pollution was investigated for a 20-month period (January 1995 through August 1996). Poisson regression was used to regress daily death counts on each air pollutant, controlling for time trends, season, and meteorologic influences such as temperature and relative humidity. Regression coeffic ...
Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health ...
The aim of the project was the construction of a prototype of an electrostatic precipitator in a laboratory scale, with the instrumentation required to perform data recording in real-time of operating variables, in order to monitor and reduce particulate matter generated in the coking process in a coal mining company in the town of Samacá. The geometric model of the structure was performed using software computer aided design, while analysis of the variables involved in the process was d ...
In a previous study, the efficacy of commercial and prototype impactors for sampling diesel particulate matter (DPM) in coal mines was investigated. Laboratory and field samples were collected on quartz-fiber filters and analyzed for organic and elemental carbon. Coal dust contributed a minimal amount of elemental carbon when commercial cascade impactors and prototype impactors, designed by the University of Minnesota (UMN) and the US Bureau of Mines (BOM), were used to collect submicrometer dus ...
Pollen allergy is the most typical form of allergic diseases. The increase in its frequency during recent years is most evident. The disease was rare when it was first described 150 years ago as summer hay fever. In 1876 Blackley wrote that the frequency of pollen allergy was increasing, especially in industrialized countries. Nowadays the prevalence of pollen allergy is well above 10%. Among the patients predominate the inhabitants of large cities, but not rural residents. Allergy develops as a ...
BACKGROUND Heat wave and health warning systems are activated based on forecasts of health-threatening hot weather. OBJECTIVE We estimated heat-mortality associations based on forecast and observed weather data in Detroit, Michigan, and compared the accuracy of forecast products for predicting heat waves. METHODS We derived and compared apparent temperature (AT) and heat wave days (with heat waves defined as ≥ 2 days of daily mean AT ≥ 95th percentile of warm-season average) from weather ...
Due to stringent regulations of safety of nuclear power plants, numerous efforts have been made to remove particulate matter and gaseous pollutants from a gas stream prior to its emission into the environment during severe accidents. Venturi scrubbers are one of the most popular and highly efficient gas cleaning devices, which frequently remove particulate matter and gaseous pollutants from the gas stream via droplets formed by liquid atomization, usually in the venturi throat. The objective of ...
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  • 2014
In order to comply with the increasingly tough emission standards worldwide, engine manufacturers are forced not only to substantially reduce emissions of particulate matter (PM), but also emissions of nitrogen oxides. The main approach pursued by MTU is low-emission combustion, in other words an internal engine solution. However, this means taking into account a basic principle that governs the process of combustion — if the fuel burns at a higher temperature inside the cylinder, little soot ...