Emission Male genitalia finding (Total 227744 Papers Found)

Industrial development and agricultural intensification are projected to increase in the humid tropics over the next few decades, increasing the emissions, transport and deposition of nitrogen-containing compounds. Most studies of the consequences of enhanced nitrogen deposition have been performed in temperate ecosystems in which biological processes are limited by nitrogen supply; they indicate that added nitrogen is retained up to decades before losses as nitrogen oxides or as nitrate (NO3− ...
Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions (SOAEs), which occur in about 40% of normal-hearing humans, do not have a firm explanation in auditory theory nor are their distributional properties well understood. To enhance our understanding of SOAEs, we have pooled data from three reports (Hammel, 1983; Strickland, Burns, & Tubis, 1985; Zurek, 1981) to assemble a large enough sample to assess the relevant hypotheses about the effects of ear and gender on their presence. The results, based on loglinear anal ...
Existing wastewater treatment options are generally perceived as energy intensive and environmentally unfriendly. Much attention has been focused on two new approaches in the past years, (i) microbial fuel cells and (ii) microbial electrolysis cells, which directly generate electrical current or chemical products, respectively, during wastewater treatment. These systems are commonly denominated as bioelectrochemical systems, and a multitude of claims have been made in the past regarding the envi ...
In agricultural fields at high and mid latitudes, a large percentage of the annual emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) can occur during freeze-thaw (FT) cycles. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of FT cycles of different amplitudes on N2O emissions, denitrifier transcriptional activity, and the abundance and composition of present and active denitrifier communities. Soil microcosms amended with NO3 − (N) and/or NO3 − plus organic C, i.e., red clover resi ...
The vast wetlands on the Tibetan Plateau are expected to be an important natural source of methane (CH4) to the atmosphere. The magnitude, patterns and environmental controls of CH4 emissions on different timescales, especially during the nongrowing season, remain poorly understood, because of technical limitations and the harsh environments. We conducted the first study on year-round CH4 fluxes in an alpine wetland using the newly developed LI-COR LI-7700 open-path gas analyzer. We found that t ...
Gasification systems, such as coal-based integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems for power generation and byproduct recovery, are complex technologies. Process simulators, such as ASPEN, have typically been used to evaluate the performance, emissions, and costs of these technologies. Process simulation models are sufficiently large that they can only be executed on workstations or minicomputers in simulations that may take hours and are often used only once or a few times. To facil ...
In 1998 and 1999, the concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) were determined in soil and herbage samples collected in the vicinity of an old municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) (S. Adrià del Besòs, Barcelona, Spain). Just after the 1999 collection, an adaptation to the EU legislation on pollutant emissions from the stack was carried out in this facility. The purpose of the present study was to determine the current concentrations of PCDD/Fs in soil ...
This paper discusses the limitations of targeting individual behaviours through information feedback systems without considering the broader socio-technical context in which decisions are made about how people use energy and water. The paper draws on recent research conducted by the author investigating the impact of interactive in-home feedback systems on practices dependent on comfort and cleanliness norms. The research found that although current feedback systems were doing little to challeng ...
This paper explores the drivers of emissions intensity improvements for a cross-section of countries over the period 1995-2009. It first documents the pattern of greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity changes across 40 developed and developing countries using the emissions and multiregional Input-output data from World Input-Output Database (WIOD). Since the countries in the dataset consist of both importers as well as exporters of emissions, the paper looks at both production-based intensities as well ...
Energy harvesting is a technology that gathers energy such as sunlight, artificial light, and vibration and heat from machinery to obtain electric power. Applying this technology to wireless sensor modules in a machine-to-machine (M2M) wireless sensor network will eliminate the need for grid-based power and primary batteries and create new value in the form of maintenance-free, battery-free, and cable-free operation. Energy harvesting can also promote environment-friendly, clean technology that ...
Otoacoustic emissions have been advocated in the management of otitis media with effusion. However, otoacoustic emissions cannot differentiate different types of hearing loss. This study was conducted to find factor that can differentiate otitis media with effusion from other common causes of hearing loss in children. Children were enrolled in the study and divided in four groups consisting of 25 ears each after pure tone and impedance audiometry: (1) Otitis media with effusion group, (2) Normal ...
Transient-evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) responses were measured in normal-hearing adult ears over frequencies from 0.7 to 8 kHz, and analyzed with reflectance/admittance data to measure absorbed sound power and the tympanometric peak pressure (TPP). The mean TPP was close to ambient. TEOAEs were measured in the ear canal at ambient pressure, TPP, and fixed air pressures from 150 to -200 daPa. Both click and chirp stimuli were used to elicit TEOAEs, in which the incident sound pressure le ...
Modern agriculture is driving the release of excessive amounts of reactive nitrogen (N) from the soils to the environment, thereby threatening ecological balances and functions. The amendment of soils with biochar has been suggested as a promising solution to regulate the soil N cycle and reduce N effluxes. However, a comprehensive and quantitative understanding of biochar impacts on soil N cycle remains elusive. A meta-analysis was conducted to assess the influence of biochar on different varia ...
A real-time monitoring methodology to determine diesel fine particles in diesel emissions has been evaluated. The range of particle size captured by the monitor was approximately 0.1 microm to 1 microm. DustTrak real-time monitors were connected to the dilution tunnel of the vehicle exhaust to measure the emissions during the vehicle tests under both dynamic and steady-state driving conditions, and concentration data were recorded every 5 sec. Test variation of the real-time monitoring among dif ...
In Germany, the demand for biomass to produce renewable energy is raising due to political sustainability goals and financial measures to support bioenergy. While the disposable arable land for the cultivation of energy plants is limited, increasing interest is put on grassland which is no longer needed for dairy cattle production. Since there are different types of “surplus” grassland and because grass can be used either to produce solid biofuels or biogas, the impacts of different technolo ...
The authors elaborated new methodic approaches to evaluation of acute ammonium and chlorine toxicity caused by possible accidental release. The approaches are based on comparison of clinical and toxicologic characteristics of various types of acute chlorine poisoning with calculated levels of chlorine in air. ...
We theoretically present in-plane multiple guided emissions of metallically confined microdisk lasers which can be applied to drive multiple elements in compact photonic integration at the same time. Two to four-port microdisks with transverse magnetic and electric polarizations are investigated based on finite difference time domain simulation and padé approximation. Modes filtering of coupling ports are verified by the calculated mode quality factors (Q) which are decided by the matching of c ...
This paper deals with the radiated emissions of the railway power supply infrastructure. Models issued from measurements and analysis of signals produced by sub-station of these signals are exploited to calculate the radiated emissions of a typical railway power supply line at frequencies lower than 2.5 MHz. ...
sidered PCB's effects on the Faeroe Islanders and concluded through further analysis of the test data that it was possible to isolate the effects of mercury. PCB exposure is associated with the results of a few of the dozen test results in the Faeroe study, says Phillipe Grandjean, principle investigator in the Faeroe Islands study To circumvent this potentially confounding exposure, the researchers limited their review to results from children who had the lowest PCB exposures, similar to averag ...
OBJECTIVE The most probable place generating tinnitus in the auditory pathway is the outer hair cells (OHCs) inside the cochlea. Otoacoustic emissions are used to assess their activity. The objective of the investigation was to measure the features of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in a group of tinnitus patients without hearing loss, estimate the diagnostic value of the parameters for the analysis of cochlear function in the patients, emphasizing those most useful in localizin ...
In the previous report, we described the performance of the apparatus in detail as well as estimation of important parameters such as water-vapor density and detection efficiency of MCP, which are necessary for evaluating the doubly differential cross section (DDCS) [1]. From 2000 to 2002, in order to reduce the systematic errors in the DDCS measurements, we performed the following improvements and reevaluations: (1) reduction of background counts by the optimization of the parameters for the in ...
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS Contralateral inhibition of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) has become an important tool to assess the functioning of the medial olivocochlear efferents in humans. However, before this measurement can be applied clinically, the test/retest repeatability needs to be established. Therefore, the current study aimed at evaluating intra- and intersession test/retest repeatability of contralateral inhibition of DPOAE at 2f(1) -f(2) . STUDY DESIGN Prospective Te ...
The study of natural analogues can inform the long-term performance security of engineered CO2 storage. There are natural CO2 reservoirs and CO2 seeps in Italy. Here, we study nine reservoirs and establish which are sealed or are leaking CO2 to surface. Their characteristics are compared to elucidate which conditions control CO2 leakage. All of the case studies would fail current CO2 storage site selection criteria, although only two leak CO2 to surface. The factors found to systematically affec ...
The project SAMPLE evaluated methods for measuring particle properties in the exhaust of aircraft engines with respect to the development of standardized operation procedures for particulate matter measurement in aviation industry. Filter-based off-line mass methods included gravimetry and chemical analysis of carbonaceous species by combustion methods. Online mass methods were based on light absorption measurement or used size distribution measurements obtained from an electrical mobility analy ...
The enantiomers of chiral pesticides are often metabolised at different rates in soil and water, leading to nonracemic residues. This paper reviews enantioselective metabolism of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in soil and water, and the use of enantiomers to follow transport and fate processes. Residues of chiral OCPs and their metabolites are frequently nonracemic in soil, although exceptions occur in which the OCPs are racemic. In soils where enantioselective degradation and/or metabolite fo ...
The tremendous increase of motor vehicles causes serious traffic congestion at the same time, also causes serious pollution to the environment. Using two associated intersections as the research object, considering environmental factors, with the targets of minimizing motor vehicle carbon monoxide emissions and maximizing the total number of people passing the intersection regions, a artery coordination control model for bus priority is proposed to optimize the associated intersections signal ti ...
BACKGROUND While much attention is focused on national policies intended to protect human health from environmental hazards, states can also prevent environmentally mediated disease through legislation and regulation. However, relatively few analyses have examined the extent to which states protect children from chemical factors in the environment. METHODS Using Lexis Nexis and other secondary sources, we systematically reviewed environmental regulation and legislation in the fifty states and ...
This paper describes the effect of wildfire particulate matter on air quality over a large part of Europe in 2003. It uses MODIS daily smoke emission inventory and a simple parameterization of injection altitude to prescribe the wildfire emissions in a mesoscale chemistry transport model. The authors conclude that the wildfire resulted in a significant enhancement of PM10 ground concentrations over a large part of Europe, exerted a strong radiative forcing and had a substantial effect of photoly ...
The prevalence of asthma and allergic disorders was assessed in 9-11 year-old children in Leipzig and Halle in East Germany, as well as in Munich, West Germany. Both East German cities are heavily polluted due to private burning of coal and industrial emissions, while Munich has low smoke emissions but heavy road traffic. All fourth grade pupils in Munich were compared with those in Leipzig and Halle. Non-specific airway disease (bronchitis), cough, and autumn/winter nasal symptoms were most pre ...
OBJECTIVE The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between cortical processing of speech and benefit from hearing aids in individuals with auditory dys-synchrony. MATERIALS AND METHODS Data were collected from 38 individuals with auditory dys-synchrony. Participants were selected based on hearing thresholds, middle ear reflexes, otoacoustic emissions, and auditory brain stem responses. Cortical-evoked potentials were recorded for click and speech. Participants with ...
A novel Nd(3+)-doped lead fluorosilicate glass (NPS glass) is prepared by a two-step melting process. Based on the absorption spectrum a Judd-Ofelt theory analysis is made. The emission line width of NPS glass is 44.2 nm. The fluorescence decay lifetime of the (4)F(3/2) level is 586+/-20 microsec, and the stimulated emission cross-section is 0.87x10(-20)cm(2)at 1056 nm. A laser oscillation is occurred at 1062 nm when pumped by 808 nm Diode Laser. The slope efficiency is 23.7% with a 415 mJ thres ...
Bioluminescence is a common feature in coastal waters where luminescent plankton can be abundant, and is commonly stimulated by fluid agitation. In the context of Navy nighttime operations, swimmers or underwater vehicles are vulnerable to detection due to their stimulation of bioluminescence. The objective of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of electromagnetic fields in reducing flow-stimulated bioluminescence. Dinoflagellates, plankton ubiquitous in coastal waters, are the most c ...
In the context of economic instruments for more energy efficiency and climate protection, tradable certificates have been investigated for renewable energy and for a number of emissions. In contrast, tradable energy efficiency – or “white” – certificates have only lately been considered as a market-based tool to foster energy efficiency as compared to standards and labelling, for example. Theoretically, there is little doubt about the advantages. In practice, however, some fundamental pr ...
Bioventing has emerged as one of the most cost-effective in situ technologies available to address petroleum light-hydrocarbon spills, one of the most common sources of soil pollution. However, the major drawback associated with this technology is the extended treatment time often required. The present study aimed to illustrate how an intended air-injection bioventing technology can be transformed into a soil vapour extraction effort when the air flow rates are pushed to a stripping mode, thus l ...
UNLABELLED Regulatory agencies have shifted their emphasis from measuring emissions during certification cycles to measuring emissions during actual use. Emission measurements in this research were made from two different large ships at sea to compare the Simplified Measurement Method (SMM) compliant with the International Maritime Organization (IMO) NOx Technical Code to the Portable Emission Measurement Systems (PEMS) compliant with the US. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 40 Code of Fede ...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has announced plans to regulate emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants. However, there is still debate over whether the limits should be placed on a nationwide or a plant-specific basis. Before a nationwide limit is selected, it must be demonstrated that local deposition of mercury from coal-fired power plants does not impose an excessive local health risk. The principal health concern is exposure of pregnant females to methyl ...
Alcohol fuels from biomass Dear Sir: The feature article by Ayub Hira and co-workers (ES&T, May 1983, p. 202A) provided an interesting overview of the environmental con­ cerns associated with ethanol and methanol fuels production. As authors of a paper that was referenced in this article, we concur with Hira et al. that the type of energy process used to drive the fuels conversion process is largely responsible for pollutant emissions from an ethanol fuel production fa­ cility. One important a ...
Transition probabilities were evaluated for the X(1)A(1)-A(1)B(1) and A(1)B(1)-B(1)A(1) systems of SiH(2) and SiD(2) to analyze the X-->A-->B photoexcitation. The Franck-Condon factors (FCFs) and Einstein's B coefficients were computed by quantum vibrational calculations using the three-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of the SiH(2)(X(1)A(1),A(1)B(1),B(1)A(1)) electronic states and the electronic transition moments for the X-A, X-B, and A-B system. The global PESs were determin ...
Based on "PAS2050 Standards" guidance, combined with life cycle assessment tools and LandGEM models, carbon footprint of the whole life cycle process of the Landfill and incineration in Suzhou were calculated for a function unit one ton household solid waste. Through a detailed list of every possible greenhouse gas emissions sources, the individual sources of electricity consumption and other energy consumptions were calculated, multiplied by the coefficient of greenhouse gas emissions, at last, ...
Impacts of industrial emissions on outdoor air pollution in nearby communities are well-documented. Fewer studies, however, have explored impacts on indoor air quality in these communities. Because persons in northern climates spend a majority of their time indoors, understanding indoor exposures, and the role of outdoor air pollution in shaping such exposures, is a priority issue. Braddock and Clairton, Pennsylvania, industrial communities near Pittsburgh, are home to an active steel mill and c ...
Climate and land-use models project increasing occurrence of high temperature and water deficit in both agricultural production systems and terrestrial ecosystems. Episodic soil wetting and subsequent drying may increase the occurrence and magnitude of pulsed biogeochemical activity, affecting carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and influencing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. In this study, we provide the first data to explore the responses of carbon dioxide (CO2 ) and nitrous oxide (N2 O) fluxes ...
Two animal growth studies and a companion digestibility study were conducted to evaluate the effect of differing ratios of forage to concentrate and the addition of yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) on NH(3) emissions from the manure of growing dairy heifers with corn silage (CS) as the sole forage. Flux chamber methods were used to measure NH(3) volatilization from the barn floor or by laboratory procedures. In experiment 1, 24 Holstein heifers (159 +/- 3.3 kg of initial body weight; BW) ...
The energy consumption and emissions from vehicles adversely affect human health and urban sustainability. Analysis of GPS big data collected from vehicles can provide useful insights about the quantity and distribution of such energy consumption and emissions. Previous studies, which estimated fuel consumption/emissions from traffic based on GPS sampled data, have not sufficiently considered vehicle activities and may have led to erroneous estimations. By adopting the analytical construct of th ...
The regulation of two players is modeled as an iterated game with no discounting where first two players (two countries providing carbon emissions) also interact with a regulator (an independent regulator responsible for controlling the carbon emission levels by imposing punishments). In our setting, employing a zero-determinant (ZD) strategy, the regulator gains a unilateral advantage to enforce a linear relation between the expected payoffs of players. We identify two conditions and prove that ...
The Toxic Release Inventory (TRI), which the United States Congress enacted in 1986, is the largest “Right to Know” program in the world. Each year over 20,000 facilities are required to report their emissions of hundreds of toxic chemicals to the government for dissemination to the public. This paper uses exogenous changes to pollution rankings within states, due to the expansion of the industries covered by the TRI in 1998, as a way to directly test the effect of pollution rankings on faci ...
Estimates of N2O emission based on limit measurements could be highly inaccurate because of considerable diurnal variations in N2O flux due to rapid transformation of nutrients and diel change of dissolved oxygen (DO). In the present study, the N2O fluxes, dissolved N2O concentrations, and the controlling variables were measured hourly for 3d and night cycles at five sites on a typically sewage-enriched river in the Taihu region. There were no significant diurnal patterns in N2O emissions and di ...
This contribution reviews progress in the technology for assessing the silencing performance of piston engine intake and exhaust systems on a running engine, with particular reference to flow noise. The new developments include the application of selective averaging, order tracking and optimised sampling rate methods to clearly identify and quantify the small fraction of the total fluctuating wave energy that is being propagated across each discontinuity along the flow path through a highly reac ...