Air Pollutants (Total 42401 Papers Found)

Children seem to be most vulnerable to the harmful effects of ambient air pollutants because their defence mechanisms are still evolving and because they inhale a higher volume of air per body weight than adults. Air pollutants can also harm the foetus if the mother is exposed to high levels of air pollution during pregnancy. An increase in respiratory neonatal mortality has been associated with ambient levels of air pollutants. Exposure to fine particles has been shown to increase allergen sens ...
In Greater Metropolitan São Paulo, Brazil, fossil fuel combustion in the transportation system is a major cause of outdoor air pollution. Air quality improvement requires additional policies and technological upgrades in fuels and vehicle engines. The current study thus simulated the environmental and social impacts resulting from the use of a stabilized diesel/ethanol mixture in the bus and truck fleet in Greater Metropolitan São Paulo. The evaluation showed reductions in air pollutants, main ...
BACKGROUND Nasal mucociliary clearance (NMC) plays a crucial role in the defense of the airways against inhaled substances and is affected by various factors. The effect of particulate matter on NMC in women using biomass fuel has not been well studied. AIM This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the NMC time in biomass fuel users and compare it with that of clean fuel users. MATERIALS AND METHODS NMC time and Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) were determined in women of age rangin ...
Exposure to air pollution has been linked to cardiovascular and respiratory disorders. However, the effect of air pollution on venous thrombotic disorders is uncertain. We performed a meta-analysis to assess the association between air pollution and venous thrombosis. PubMed, Embase, EBM Reviews, Healthstar, Global Health, Nursing Database, and Web of Science were searched for citations on air pollutants (carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ozone, and particulate matters) and veno ...
Ground level ozone is one of the major air pollutants that the EPA is trying to control. Not only is it a major cause of smog, but it is a health threat especially for persons with lung, bronchial and other breathing problems. The EPA reports that more people in the USA are exposed to unacceptable levels of ozone than all the other criteria pollutants combined. Ozone is also harmful to growing plants resulting in agricultural losses. This low-level ozone is not a natural air constituent. It is g ...
The purposes of this study are to develop a healthy commute map indicating cleanest route in Taipei metropolitan area for any given journey and to evaluate the pollutant doses exposed in different commuting modes. In Taiwan, there are more than 13.6 million motorcycles and 7.7 million vehicles among the 23 million people. Exposure to traffic-related air pollutants can thus cause adverse health effects. Moreover, increasing the level of physical activity during commuting and longer distances will ...
Grain dust and other irritants affect the airway of allergic patients in rice-growing area during the harvest. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanism of airway hypersensitivity in rice-growing areas during the harvest. Firstly, the effect of rice-husk dust on eosinophil activation was studied. Secondary, the concentration of lipopolysaccharides (LPS), a potent activator of inflammatory cells, in rice-husk dust was measured. Since it is possible for LPS, a component of gram-negative ...
Pollen from Japanese cedar (sugi) and cypress (hinoki) trees is responsible for the growing prevalence of allergic rhinitis, especially pollinosis in Japan. Previous studies have suggested that air pollutants enhance the allergic response to pollen in susceptible individuals. We conducted a time-stratified case-crossover study to examine the potential modifying effects of PM2.5 and suspended particulate matter (SPM) on the association between pollen concentration and daily consultations for poll ...
Defoliation is an indicator for forest health in response to several stressors including air pollutants, and one of the most important parameters monitored in the International Cooperative Programme on Assessment and Monitoring of Air Pollution Effects on Forests (ICP Forests). The study aims to estimate crown defoliation in 2030, under three climate and one nitrogen deposition scenarios, based on evaluation of the most important factors (meteorological, nitrogen deposition and chemical soil par ...
Concentrations of airborne particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than 10 μm (PM10) and five gaseous air pollutants (O3, CO, NO2, SO2 and H2S) were measured over a period of approximately six years (October 1999-June 2004) at five air quality monitoring network stations of King Abulaziz City for Science and Technology (KACST) in Riyadh city, Saudi Arabia. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the quality of ambient air in relation to its possible effects on human health ...
Sludge incineration is becoming an important disposal method of industrial sludge from the viewpoint of the need to minimize the environmental impact. This work employs a pilot-scale fluidized bed incinerator to investigate the combustion characteristics of petrochemical sludge. Effects of different operating conditions on the performance of sludge incineration and the emission characteristics are investigated. Experimental results showed that operating temperature, excess air ratio, operating t ...
BACKGROUND There is no consistent evidence that outdoor air pollutants are involved in the development of asthma. OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to determine whether outdoor air pollutants derived from industrial processes were related to the prevalence of asthma, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and atopy in exposed children. METHODS A total of 7,511 children from 7 to 12 years of age were recruited in the study. Eight hundred eighty-eight of 1,009 (88%) of the subjects living around ind ...
BACKGROUND Errors in address geocodes may affect estimates of the effects of air pollution on health. OBJECTIVE We investigated the impact of four geocoding techniques on the association between urban air pollution estimated with a fine-scale (10 m × 10 m) dispersion model and lung function in adults. METHODS We measured forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) in 354 adult residents of Grenoble, France, who were participants in two well-characterized studies ...
Study question: We examined whether methods for measuring exposure to airborne particles less than 10 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM10) in the Mexico City metropolitan area give different estimates of PM10 levels, and the nature of these differences, and developed a model for estimating missing PM10 data for one measurement method. Methods: Government PM10 measurements using two different technologies at five sites (the Sierra–Anderson PM10 High-Volume Air Sampler System, Hi-Vol) (every sixth ...
The air we breathe is composed of lots of different chemical components. Some of these components are pollutants that are harmful to human health. Air pollutants come from a variety of different sources, including power plants, factories, agriculture, and transportation. Transportation vehicles are powered by combustion of fossil fuels, such as gasoline or diesel, to move from one place to another, and combustion of these fuels results in the release of gases and very small particles. These subs ...
Spatiotemporal variations of six criteria air pollutants and influencing factors in the city clusters of Sichuan Basin were studied based on real-time hourly concentrations of PM2.5 (the particles with diameters smaller than 2.5μm), PM10 (the particles with diameters smaller than 10μm), SO2, NO2, CO and O3 and routine meteorological data during the years from 2015 to 2017. The Sichuan Basin was further categorized into four regions: West, south, northeast Sichuan Basin (WSB, SSB and NESB) and ...
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) shows indoor air is 2-3 times more polluted than the worst outside air. These pollutants also lead to simple asphyxiation as general health hazard which ensures the importance of indoor air quality (IAQ) monitoring. Therefore maintaining a good indoor air quality improves the health zone of the peoples both in urban and rural areas. Peoples in rural areas are more affected because burning woods and papers are common practices occurring since there is no much ...
Candle composition is expected to influence the air pollutants emissions, possibly leading to important differences in the emissions of volatile organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. In this regard, the purity of the raw materials and additives used can play a key role. Consequently, in this work emission factors for some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, aromatic species, short-chain aldehydes and particulate matter have been determined for container candles constituted by dif ...
There is considerable concern about possible links between ambient air pollution and the upward trend in asthma. This chapter reviews the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence concerning air pollution and asthma and examines the hypothesis that trends in asthma could be explained by air pollution. It is concluded that existing evidence is not sufficient to link air pollution with the initiation of asthma in healthy subjects. Although there is better evidence that air pollution can provoke or ...
OBJECTIVE Evidence linking short-term exposure to outdoor air pollution with hemorrhagic stroke is inconsistent. METHODS We evaluated the associations between outdoor air pollution and specific types of stroke in Tokyo, Japan, from April 2003 to December 2008. We obtained daily counts of stroke mortality (n = 41,440) and concentrations of nitrogen dioxide as well as particles less than 2.5 μm in diameter. Time-series analysis was employed. RESULTS Although same-day air pollutants were posit ...
There is increasing interest in potential health effects of airborne exposures to hazardous air pollutants at relatively low levels. This study focuses on sources, levels, and exposure pathways of manganese, chromium, and iron among inner-city high school students in New York City (NYC) and the contribution of subways. Samples of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) were collected during winter and summer over 48 h periods in a variety of settings including inside homes, outdoors, and personal sample ...
Complex mixtures of polycyclic organic matter (POM) are used to illustrate the scientific problems and issues associated with characterizing the comparative risk of related complex mixtures. The complexity of mixtures in which the active components are not well characterized present special challenges, which include identifying the critical components of mixtures, their sources, and the appropriate biomarker(s) of exposure and dose; developing the appropriate experimental models for dose-respons ...
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  • 2008
What is air quality? Zhang (2005) defines air quality as the degree of pollution of clean air. Clean air is the air that is free from impurities. Air quality can be determined by measuring the concentration of pollutants in the air. The lower the concentration of airborne pollutants, the better is the air quality. Auvermann (2006) defined air pollutants as compounds or materials that, when suspended in or mixed with air, degrade air quality and impair its utility for any of a wide range of purpo ...
Monitoring of air pollutants is an important instrument to detect threats and to observe temporal trends of emissions. Determining the spatial distribution of oxidized and reduced N species via modelling requires sufficient knowledge about innumerous small sources from traffic, settlements and agriculture. Empirical studies are required to validate the model data but measurements of the total N deposition (e.g. micrometeorological measurements) are very expensive. Against this background, the TO ...
BACKGROUND There is relatively little evidence of health effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution in susceptible populations. We investigated whether long-term exposure to traffic air and noise pollution was associated with all-cause mortality or hospital readmission for myocardial infarction (MI) among survivors of hospital admission for MI. METHODS Patients from the Myocardial Ischaemia National Audit Project database resident in Greater London (n = 1 8,138) were followed f ...
Hierarchical modeling is becoming increasingly popular in epidemiology, particularly in air pollution studies. When potential confounding exists, a multilevel model yields better power to assess the independent effects of each predictor by gathering evidence across many sub-studies. If the predictors are measured with unknown error, bias can be expected in the individual substudies, and in the combined estimates of the second-stage model. We consider two alternative methods for estimating the in ...
F irst-time visitors to Kigali, Rwanda's capital, usually remark that they cannot believe they are in a country that a little over 20 years was in the midst of a civil war. The 1994 genocide against the Tutsi resulted in the slaughter of up to one million people — around 15% of the population. But the landlocked country is developing rapidly. Where gravel roads once dominated, paved streets are now the rule. Internet connections are fast and stable. Buildings are constructed at breakneck speed ...
The capacity of cyclodextrins in trapping VOCs is studied. Cyclodextrins (CDs) are a family of cyclic oligosaccharides that are composed of α-1,4-linked glucopyranose subunits. The most notable feature of cyclodextrins is their ability to form inclusion complexes (host–guest complexes) in solution with a very wide range of solid, liquid and gaseous compounds by a phenomenon of molecular complexation. Inclusion in cyclodextrins exerts a profound effect on the physicochemical properties of gues ...
Respiratory allergic diseases appear to be increasing in most countries. In particular, asthma morbidity and mortality have been reported to be increasing despite the availability of effective asthma medications. It has been also observed that subjects living in urban and industrialized areas are more likely to have respiratory allergic symptoms than those living in rural areas. This increase has been linked to air pollution, rather than to a modification of the genome of the patient. The interp ...
Controlling the confounding factors on cardiovascular diseases, such as long-time trend, calendar effect, and meteorological factors, a generalized additive model (GAM) was used to investigate the short-term effects of air pollutants (PM10, SO2, and NO2) on daily cardiovascular admissions from March 1st to May 31st during 2007 to 2011 in Lanzhou, a heavily polluted city in western China. The influences of air pollutants were examined with different lag structures, and the potential effect modifi ...
  • Shinichi Kuzu,
  • Environmental science and pollution research international
  • 2016
Conventional air pollutants (PM10, CO, NOx) gradually increased from fall to winter during 2015 in Istanbul. Several air pollution episodes were observed during this period. This study was made in order to determine polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) levels, identify the sources of air pollution, and make toxicity assessment based on Benzo(a)pyrene equivalent concentrations. The sampling took 14 sequential days during winter. High-pressure weather conditions prevailed at the start of the samp ...
Bryophyte particularly mosses, have been found to serve as reliable indicators of air pollution and can serve as bryometers-biological instruments for measuring air pollution. They are remarkable colonizers, as they have the ability to survive in adverse environments and are also particular in their requirement of environmental conditions, which makes them appropriate ecological indicators. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of antioxidative enzymes in two mosses viz., Hyophi ...
Indoor air quality is vital to the health and comfort of people who live inside a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) built for long-term space explorations. Here we measured aromatic hydrocarbons to assess their sources and health risks during a 4-person-180-day integrated experiment inside a CELSS with four cabins for growing crops, vegetables and fruits and other two cabins for working, accommodations and resources management. During the experiment, the average concentrations of ...
In the Republic of Croatia, according to the Air Protection Act, air pollution assessment is obligatory on the whole State territory. For individual regions and populated areas in the State a network has been established for permanent air quality monitoring. The State network consists of stations for measuring background pollution, regional and cross-border remote transfer and measurements as part of international government liabilities, then stations for measuring air quality in areas of cultur ...
OBJECTIVE To use vertical and humidity correcting method to calibrate aerosol optical depth (AOD), and to explore the feasibility of calibrated-AOD as exposure index to measure the level of air pollutants from the ground and to establish the exposure-response relationship between calibrated-AOD and people's health outcomes. METHODS First of all, we interpolated AOD, PM2.5, relative humidity and planetary boundary layer height using Kriging method to obtain data at different locations and match ...
Few studies have discussed the association between the urban heat island (UHI) phenomenon and air quality under synoptic weather patterns conducive to UHI. In this study, the authors used statistical analyses to study this association in the Taichung metropolis region. The air quality data obtained from government-owned observation stations and wind field profiles obtained from tethersonde monitoring (performed during 21-29 October 2004) were combined with the simulations of the horizontal wind ...
With the help of diffusive samplers spatial distribution of air pollutants can be assessed and these samplers are therefore a sound completion to continuous monitors. Diffusive sampler networks can be run easily over longer time periods and are an effective tool in air quality management. In the framework of the Swiss Project " Airo Puro " in 6 Central American countries, the diffusive sampling technique was established in 6 different organisations. The quality of measurements was maintained in ...
Epidemiologic studies have clearly shown that air pollution is associated with a range of respiratory effects. Recent research has identified oxidative stress as a major biologic pathway underlying the toxic effect of air pollutants. Genetic susceptibility is likely to play a role in response to air pollution. Genes involved in oxidative stress and inflammatory pathways are logical candidates for the study of the interaction with air pollutants. In this article we use the example of asthma, a ge ...
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  • 2017
Dust particles form a major part of air pollutants arising due to industrial processes and pose serious threat to the ecosystem. In India 30-35% of air pollutants comprises of dust particles. Activities such as coal mining, quarrying, stone crushing, thermal power plants, cement industries etc., adds huge quantities of dust to the environment. The current scenario of large scale deforestation; destruction of biota and other ecosystem components are being attributed to be the effect of dust pollu ...
The prevalence of asthma is increasing, especially among children in Malaysia, with environmental factors as one of the main preventable contributors. The aim of this study was to determine the association between environmental air pollutants and the occurrence of asthma among children seen in pediatric clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center (UKMMC), Kuala Lumpur. An unmatched case control study among children who attended the pediatric clinic was carried out from May to August ...
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE High concentrations of air pollutants have been linked to increased incidence of stroke in North America and Europe but not yet assessed in mainland China. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between stroke hospitalization and short-term elevation of air pollutants in Wuhan, China. METHODS Daily mean NO2, SO2 and PM10 levels, temperature and humidity were obtained from 2006 through 2008. Data on stroke hospitalizations (ICD 10: I60-I69) at four hospita ...
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  • 2006
Passage of the 1990Amendments to the Clean Air Act made it clear that maximum available control technology (“MACT”) regulations on the emission of hazardous air pollutants (“HAPS”) from process heaters and industrial boilers, used extensively in the petroleum and petrochemical industries, would be promulgated under congressional mandate by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency in the year 2000. Unfortunately, i t had also become clear that under.Mnding, the “goodscience” upon whi ...
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of long-term concentrations of ambient air pollutants and risk of incident lung cancer in nonsmoking California adults. A cohort study of 6,338 nonsmoking, non-Hispanic, white Californian adults, ages 27-95, was followed from 1977 to 1992 for newly diagnosed cancers. Monthly ambient air pollution data were interpolated to zip code centroids according to home and work location histories, cumulated, and then averaged over time. The increas ...
BACKGROUND Short-term exposure to ambient air pollution has been associated with acute increases in cardiovascular hospitalization and mortality. However, causative chemical components and underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be clarified. We hypothesized that endothelial dysfunction would be associated with mobile-source (traffic) air pollution and that pollutant components with higher oxidative potential to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) would have stronger associations. ...
BACKGROUND Outdoor air pollution, given its demonstrated negative effects on the respiratory system, is a growing public health concern worldwide, particularly in urban cities. Human exposure to pollutants such as ozone, nitrogen oxides, combustion-related particulate matter and oxides of sulfur is responsible for significant cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. Several antioxidants have shown an ability to partially attenuate the negative physiological and functi ...
The impact of long-term exposure to air pollution on respiratory and allergic symptoms and illnesses was assessed in a cross-sectional study of schoolchildren (ages 6 to 15 yr, n = 4,470) living in 10 different communities in Switzerland. Air pollution measurements (particulate matter less than 10 microns in diameter [PM10], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], sulfur dioxide [SO2], and ozone) and meteorologic data were collected in each community. Reported symptom rates of chronic cough, nocturnal dry cough ...
BACKGROUND Exposure to allergens or air pollutants often leads to asthma exacerbations associated with aggravation of airway inflammation. Although, repeated allergen challenge often induces chronic allergic airway inflammation (CAAI) and airway remodelling, yet, the effects of brief exposure to air pollutants such as SO(2) on development of CAAI and airway remodelling remain to be clarified. OBJECTIVE The aim of the experiment was to investigate the effects of acute neutrophilic airway inflam ...