Direct emissions of air pollutants from the cement industry in China were estimated by developing a technology-based methodology using information on the proportion of cement produced from different types of kilns and the emission standards for the Chinese cement industry. Historical emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NOX), carbon monoxide (CO), particulate matter (PM) and carbon dioxide (CO2) were estimated for the years 1990e2008, and future emissions were projected up to 2020 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Compared with the historical high (4.36 Tg of PM2.5, 7.16 Tg of PM10 and 10.44 Tg of TSP in 1997), PM emissions are predicted to drop substantially by 2020, despite the expected tripling of cement production. Certain other air pollutant emissions, such as CO and SO2, are also predicted to decrease with the progressive closure of shaft kilns. NOX emissions, however, could increase because of the promotion of precalciner kilns and the rapid increase of cement production. CO2 emissions from the cement industry account for approximately one eighth of China’s national CO2 emissions. Our analysis indicates that it is possible to reduce CO2 emissions from this industry by approximately 12.8% if advanced energy-related technologies are implemented. These technologies will bring co-benefits in reducing other air pollutants as well. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
13 Figures and Tables
Table 1 Emission sources of air pollutants from the cement industry and equations used for esti
Fig. 1. Cement production in China from different types of kiln from 1990 to 2008.
Table 2 Cement and clinker production and energy consumption in China, 1990e2008.
Table 3 Emission factors of SO2, NOX and CO from cement kilns (g kg 1 of coal combusted in kilns).
Fig. 3. Emissions of air pollutants (top panel, PM; bottom panel, SO2, NOX, CO, CO2) from China’s cement industry from 1990 to 2008.
Table 4 Unabated PM emission factors for cement production (g kg 1 cement).
Fig. 4. Emissions of PM2.5, SO2 and NOX from the cement industry in China plotted on an 180 180 grid; provincial boundaries are shown. (a) PM2.5; (b) SO2; (c) NOX.
Table 5 Estimated emissions of air pollutants from China’s cement industry (1990e2008) compared to emissions from all anthropogenic sources (Tg).
Table 6 Comparison of EFs used for the estimation of CO2 emissions (kg CO2/kg cement).a
Table 7 The key features and EFs of China’s cement industry in 2010, 2015 and 2020 (projections based on existing policies).
Table 8 Future output and coal consumption of China’s cement industry, and associated emissions of air pollutants (Tg) for three production scenarios of high, medium and low cement production (see text for details).
Table 9 Estimated emission reduction potential from major CO2 mitigation technologies in 2020.
Table 10 Emission reduction potential of PM, SO2 and NOX in 2020.
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